Business to Business

Business-to-business, often indicated by the acronym B2B, is a term used to describe electronic commercial transactions between companies, distinguishing them from those that occur between companies and other groups, such as those between a company and individual consumers / customers (B2C , from the English Business to Customer or Business to Consumer) or those between a company and the government (B2G, from the English Business to Government).

B2B - Business-to-business

Description

It is a term that refers to generic processes between commercial partners, and which can also refer to all transactions carried out in an industrial value chain, before the finished product is sold to the final consumer.

More specifically, Business-to-Business or B2B indicates the relationships that a company has with its suppliers for procurement, production planning and monitoring activities, or to aid in product development activities, or the relationships that it company holds with professional customers, ie other companies, located in different points of the production chain.

The volume of B2B transactions is much higher than that of B2C transactions. According to estimates, in 2018 the value generated by the B2B transaction was approximately 2,700 billion euros (of which 335 billion generated by B2B e-commerce alone), accounting for 75% of the entire turnover of Italian companies. [1] One reason is that businesses have adopted e-commerce technologies far more than consumers have. Furthermore, in a typical supply chain (or logistic chain, in ing. Supply chain), there are many B2B transactions, but only one B2C transaction, since the complete product is retailed to the final customer.

For example, the business relationship between a manufacturer and a wholesaler is a B2B relationship. The direct relationship between producer or wholesaler, on the one hand, and customer / consumer / final private user, is defined as B2C. Another example of a B2B transaction is a chicken feed company selling its product to a chicken farm, which constitutes another company. Another example of a B2C transaction is a grocery store that sells grain-fed chickens to a consumer. B2B can also describe marketing activities between companies, not just the final transactions that result from marketing, although the term can in fact be used to identify business transactions between companies (also referred to as ‘institutional sales’) . For example, a company that sells copiers is more likely to be identified with a B2B rather than a B2C business organization.

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Internet

network internet

The Internet is a public access telecommunications network that connects various devices or terminals all over the world, representing since its birth one of the major means of mass communication (together with radio and television), thanks to the offer to the user of a vast series of potentially informative contents and services.

It is a global interconnection between telecommunications and computer networks of different nature and extension, made possible by a suite of common network protocols called “TCP / IP” from the name of the two main protocols, TCP and IP, which constitute the common “language” with which computers connected to the Internet (hosts) are interconnected and communicate with each other at a higher level regardless of their underlying hardware and software architecture, thus ensuring interoperability between different physical systems and subnets.

The advent and diffusion of the Internet and its services have represented a real technological and socio-cultural revolution since the early nineties (together with other inventions such as mobile phones and GPS) as well as one of the engines of world economic development. in the field of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT).

As a telecommunications network, in terms of diffusion it is second only to the general telephone network, which is also world-wide and with public access, but even more “capillary” than the Internet.

History

The origin of the Internet dates back to the 1960s, at the initiative of the United States of America, which developed a new defense and counter-intelligence system during the Cold War.

The first scientific publication in which a world-wide computer network with public access is theorized is On-line man computer communication of August 1962, a scientific publication by the Americans Joseph Licklider and Welden E. Clark. In the publication Licklider and Clark, researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, also give a name to the network they theorized: “Intergalactic Computer Network”.

Before all this begins to become a public reality it will be necessary to wait until 1991 when the government of the United States of America issues the High performance computing act, the law with which for the first time the possibility of expanding, thanks to the initiative, is foreseen private and with the purpose of commercial exploitation, an Internet network up to that moment a world-wide computer network owned by the state and intended for the scientific world. This commercial exploitation is immediately implemented by other countries as well.

The progenitor and precursor of the Internet is considered the ARPANET project, funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (English: DARPA, Agency for Advanced Research Projects for Defense), an agency dependent on the US Department of Defense or DoD of the United States of America). In a note dated April 25, 1963, Licklider had expressed his intention to link all computers and time-sharing systems into a continental network. Having left ARPA for a job at IBM the following year, it was his successors who dedicated themselves to the ARPANET project.

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The contract was awarded to the company from which Licklider came, Bolt, Beranek and Newman (BBN) which used Honeywell’s minicomputers as support. The network was physically built in 1969 by connecting four nodes: the University of California at Los Angeles, the Stanford SRI, the University of California at Santa Barbara, and the University of Utah. The bandwidth was 50 kbps. In the meetings to define the characteristics of the network, the fundamental Requests for Comments were introduced, which are still the fundamental documents for everything related to the IT protocols of the network and their developments. The modern day super-network resulted from the extension of this first network, created under the name of ARPANET.

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The first nodes were based on a client / server architecture, and therefore did not support direct connections (host-to-host). The applications run were basically Telnet and File Transfer Protocol (FTP) programs. The e-mail service was invented by Ray Tomlinson of BBN in 1971, deriving the program from two others: the SENDMSG for internal messages and CPYNET, a program for transferring files. The following year, the Arpanet was introduced to the public, and Tomlinson adapted his program to work on it: it quickly became popular, thanks also to the contribution of Larry Roberts who had developed the first program for managing e-mail, RD.

The university

The university (from the Latin universitas, -atis: community, corporation, association) is a model of education that originated in the Middle Ages. The institute has its origins in European churches and convents where, around the 11th century, lectures began, with readings and commentary on philosophical and legal texts, and with them, or in general around great ecclesiastical personalities, various categories of teachers and students began to organize themselves into universitates guilds.

Study at university

Ancient age

Institutions of this type have existed since ancient times, which can be traced back to the Platonic Academy, the various cultural symposiums present in ancient Greece (the most famous of which are the etheria of Alceo and the tíaso of Sappho) and the Lyceum of Aristotle. In Roman times the forerunner higher education schools of the current universities were those of law (active in Beirito since the second century) organized according to pre-established study cycles (generally lasting four years).

Middle Ages

In the High Middle Ages the Salerno Medical School had great prestige, whose origins date back to the 9th century, considered the first medical-scientific university. During the Middle Ages, and especially in the 12th century, the Church achieved a great intellectual, spiritual and cultural hegemony of the Western world, thanks to the work of rediscovering the classical culture of the ancient Greek-Roman world. In this sense, the work of the monasteries and scribe monks was decisive, but above all also the contact between Europe and the Arab world. Several members of the clergy began to give lectiones magistrales in which they mainly discussed Aristotelian philosophy, the most systematized part of ancient knowledge. This phenomenon spread rapidly in Europe, soon acquiring the character of real assembly meetings, so much attended that they soon required a more rational organization. They were therefore regulated and protected by imperial and papal bulls. The legal status of Clericus vagans and its internal statutes ensured ample freedom of movement for teachers and students of medieval Europe, together with immunity and independence from local powers.

In Bologna, from the institutionalization of one of these first nuclei, the University of Bologna was born, known today as Alma mater studiorum. A certain date of foundation is not known and 1088 was conventionally chosen in the nineteenth century by a committee of historians led by Giosuè Carducci to celebrate its eight hundredth anniversary. A certain date is 1158, when Federico Barbarossa promulgates the constitutio “Authentica Habita”, following which the university becomes a place where research develops independently from any other power. The presence of numerous foreign students in Bologna (non-resident students still make up the majority of the student population) leads to the creation of associations, called “universitates”, set up by students to protect their rights. Thus first two universitates arise, that of the citramontani (or Italians) and that of the ultramontani. With the increase of the students a subdivision is produced first in “nationes” (Romans, Neapolitans, Tuscans and Lombards), then in “subnationes”. The latter amounted to as many as 17 in the 12th century for the Italians and 14 for the ultramontans. According to some historians, moreover, the University of Pavia would still be older than that of Bologna, since it arose from a chair of law present about two hundred years earlier.

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